Understanding Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a viral infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is transmitted through contact with infected blood. Hepatitis C is a major public health concern, with an estimated 71 million people living with chronic HCV infection worldwide. 

What is Hepatitis C?

The hepatitis C virus is a small, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. There are six major genotypes of HCV, and numerous subtypes. The virus is usually transmitted through exposure to infected blood. This can occur through illicit drug use (injection, inhalation, or intranasal), receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992, or from a mother to her child during childbirth. In rare cases, hepatitis C can be transmitted through sexual contact.

Hepatitis C can become chronic. Chronic HCV can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.


Many people who are infected with HCV do not experience any symptoms. This is particularly true in the early stages of infection. However, if symptoms do occur, they can include any of these:

  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  • Dark urine
  • Pale stools
  • Joint pain
  • Abdominal pain

These symptoms are not unique to HCV and can be caused by many other conditions. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause.


Hepatitis C is diagnosed through blood tests. There are two main tests used to diagnose this condition:

  • Antibody test: This test detects the presence of antibodies to the HCV virus in the blood. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection. If the antibody test is positive, it means that you have been exposed to the virus at some point in the past. However, it does not indicate whether you are currently infected or if you have cleared the infection.
  • RNA test: This test detects the presence of the virus itself in the blood. If the RNA test is positive, it means that you are currently infected with HCV.


Treatment for hepatitis C depends on several factors, including the genotype of the virus, the extent of liver damage, and the presence of any other medical conditions. The goal of treatment is to cure the infection and prevent further liver damage.

The most common treatment for HCV is a combination of medications known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). These medications work by targeting specific proteins in the virus, preventing it from replicating and causing further damage to the liver. The length of treatment and the specific medications used depend on the genotype of the virus and other factors.

In some cases, people with advanced liver damage may require a liver transplant. However, this is not a cure for HCV, and the virus can still recur in the transplanted liver.


There is currently no vaccine for HCV. The best way to prevent hepatitis C is to avoid exposure to infected blood. This can be done by:

  • Avoidance of illicit drug use
  • Not sharing needles or other injection equipment
  • Using condoms during sexual activity
  • Ensuring that all medical procedures involving needles or blood products are performed with sterile equipment
  • Getting tested for HCV if you think you may have been exposed

If you are diagnosed with hepatitis C, it is important to take steps to prevent the spread of the virus to others. This can be done by:

  • Not sharing personal items such as razors or toothbrushes that may come into contact with blood
  • Covering cuts or open wounds to prevent the spread of blood
  • Not donating blood, organs, or tissues
  • Practicing safe sex

If you are concerned about hepatitis C, talk with your primary care physician about having a screening test. 


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